Friday, September 28, 2018

Chronological History of Marin County

Notes from Clifford Flack,

Chronological History of Marin County

, Vol. 1, 1542-1899, (unpublished), pp. 5-11.

1813-     “Mortality among the Indians at the San Francisco Mission continued.  Father Ramon Abello suggested to Governor Sola that the Mission be transferred north of the Bay, as children, old people, and the ailing could not survive the inclemency of the climate…”
1816-    Russians reported hunting sea otter in San Francisco and San Pablo Bays.
1817-    Establishment of Mission San Rafael Archangel in Marin, Dec. 14, by Father Gil y Toboada, Ramon Abella, Narcisco Duren, and Vicente Francisco Serria… Some 250 neophytes and a few soldiers under Rafael Garcia were transferred to the new Mission.
1818-    Padres planted orchards on both sides of the Mission.  One pear tree survives at this date (1937.)  The gardens extended to the San Rafael slough, which extended at the time to the present C Street.
1818-    Cattle industry began in Marin
DSC 94831819-    Presidente Father Payeras and Commandante Arguello again visited Mission San Rafael.  They reported that the Mission was built in the shape of an L, the long side being 100 feet, the short arm eighty feet.  The chapel occupied the corner; adjoining it were the Justice Chamber and the living quarters of the padres.  The Mission buildings spread over considerable territory.  These buildings housed the Indians and the workshops.
1820-    Population of the Mission was recorded as five hundred and ninety.
    Troops were quartered at the Mission upon orders of the Governor.
1820-    Pompino, a renegade neophyte Indian of the San Rafael area, started a reign of terror.  He terrorized the country from Sonoma to Santa Cruz.  His crimes were all against Indians, and he was accused of “murder, outrage, and robbery.”
1821-    The Arguello Expedition passed through Marin, and spent some time at the San Rafael Mission… [It included] fifty soldiers.  They went as far north as Columbia River
1822-     Independence of Mexico from Spain was proclaimed on December 8th; the oath of allegiance to the Mexican Government was administered in San Rafael.
1822-    A movement was started to close the San Francisco Missions and open a Mission farther north.  The reasons given were the inclement weather and non-productive soil; instigation actually was from those who desired the rich mission ranches south of San Francisco.  Foremost among those urging the removal were Governor Arguello and Padre Jose Altamira, who later founded the Mission at Sonoma.  When Padre Amorosa of San Rafael head rumors of the suppression he wrote to Governor Arguello protesting, saying he was “feeding, clothing, and instruction eight hundred Indians.’
1823-    The Missions were not suppressed, but Padre Altamira founded the Sonoma Mission on July 4, 1823.  On August 4th, Governor Arguello wrote Padre Amorosa, notifying him that the San Rafael Mission was to be moved.  On August 12th, Lt. Ignacio Martinez and Padre Altamira took possession of the Mission property “by inventory”, which they carried to San Francisco.
1824-    The most widespread Indian revolt in Mission history took place.  The northern Indians were fiercer and more numerous than the southern tribes and therefore more difficult to subdue.  Two important skirmishes took place during the uprising.  Lt. Ignacio Maritine and Ensign Jose Sanchez, in command of a small party of soldiers, were in hot pursuit of a band of Indians near San Rafael,.  These Indians were led by Marin, a Lacituit Chief.  Hard pressed by the Spaniards, Marin took refuge on his home island near the entrance of the tidal creek, Estero de San Rafael Aguanni.  The island immediately was the rallying place for crowds of Indians in their tule bolsas.  Fearing retreat would be cut off, Martinez retired by the way of a point of land on San Pablo Bay.  Here they were attacked by Quintin, a sub-chief of Marin.  After a stiff skirmish Quintin was captured and taken to San Francisco, where he was imprisoned for two years.  He was then released and became boatman for General Vallejo.  Chief Marin was captured the next year, and after being kept prisoner for twelve months, he became boatman for the padres at San Rafael.  He was baptized and lived at the Mission until his death.
    Marin County was named for Chief Marin, while the point where the fight occurred between Martinez and Quintin was named after the latter.  This later became Point Quentin.
1824-    Roving bands of Indians harassed the Mission Indians, travelers, and settlers alike.  The worst offender was the Indian bandit, Pompino, who had been committing depredations for several years.  He finally murdered a Mexican soldier, Manuel Varella.  Lt. Martinez and two soldiers were sent to capture him, and after searching the whole San Rafael region, captured him near Novato Valley.  He was taken to Monterey, tried, and hanged.
1824-    …Corporal Rafael Garcia, in charge of four soldiers, was stationed as a guard for the San Rafael Mission.  Having been warned of a contemplated surprise attack, he placed his wife and two children on an Indian bolsa, which he cast adrift in the Bay.  The bolsa landed safely at the Presidio… Garcia repulsed the Indian attack and received commendation from the Governor.
1824-    Otto von Kotzebue, in command of a Russian frigate, anchored in San Francisco Bay and made a visit to San Rafael.
1824-    Governor Jose Echeandia reported to Mexico that the Russians were enticing neophytes from the San Rafael Mission.  He urged the erection of a fort somewhere in the vicinity.  Nothing was done.
1825-    Thousands of Indians died during an epidemic of measles.
1827-    Governor Jose Echeandia received orders from Mexico to establish a fort at San Rafael… on account of political changes, nothing was done.
1828-    Population of Mission San Rafael estimated at 1140.
1828-    The first move toward secularizing the Mission was published on December 11th by Governor Echeandia.
1828-    Don Timoteo Murphy, an Irishman from Dublin, came to California as agent for Hartwell and Co., and English firm, having been their agent in Lima, Peru.  He came to Marin in 1828.
1831-    Otter hunting was a profitable business.  Don Timoteo Murphy was a famous hunter in those days.  He sold his otter pelts for $40 each.  A few years later James Black became one of the group of otter hunters.
1832-    Mission San Rafael statistics between 1818 and 1832:
    1,873 Baptisms      --    1,028 Adult Indians
                    768 Indian Children
                    7 White (gente de razon)
    543  Marriages    --    Of these, 8 were White.
    725 Deaths        --    485 Adult Indians
                    239 Indian Children
                    1 White
1834-    Secularization of the Missions.
1834-    Marin, Chief of the Lacituit Indians, died at San Rafael Mission.  He was supposed to have been buried in the Mission Church.

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